Thutmose II ("Born of the God Thoth") was the fourth Pharaoh of the eighteenth dynasty of Ancient Egyptian rulers, born to Thutmose I, his predecessor, and a secondary queen by the name of Mutnofret. He was the legitimate half-brother, cousin and husband to Hatshepsut, the "God's Wife of Amun," who held much more power and influence than him.
During his reign, it is known that he successfully suppressed a regional revolt in the then-Egyptian territory of Nubia, sending forces to execute or capture the rebel tribe's males to reinforce his sovereignty. He is also said to have sent a punitive campaign against the Bedouins in southern Palestine, and ordered the construction of a festival court in Karnak (also called Al-Karnak), a village located in the Al-Uqṣur region of Upper Egypt, in front of its temple complex. The court would be adorned and decorated with royal monuments, until its demolition by order of Amenhotep III. Alongside those, the king is also responsible for a small funerary temple, later expanded by another Pharaoh, though it has not been identified as his official tomb. Thutmose II's body was found in the Deir el-Bahri Royal Cache, above the Mortuary Temple of Hatshepsut, and can be viewed today in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo.
As befitting of his status, the Pharaoh was most likely embalmed in the standard technique for mummification during the New Kingdom era, that has produced the best prepared and preserved mummies, including those of Tutankhamun and other well-known pharaohs. Thutmose II's mummy was discovered in the Deir el-Bahri Royal Cache (also referred to as the Theban Necropolis), buried along with other 18th and 19th dynasty leaders, including Ahmose I, Amenhotep I,Thutmose I, Thutmose III, Ramesses I, Seti I,Ramesses II, and Ramesses IX, in the year 1881, after a most probable reburial, for there are no tombs or temples under his own name.
The mummy was unwrapped by Gaston Maspero, the head of the Antiquities Service in Cairo, in 1886. There is a strong familial resemblance to the mummy of Thutmose I, his father, as the mummy's face and shape of the head are very similar. It was in poor shape, having been severely damaged by ancient tomb robbers searching from gold and precious gems concealed in the mummy's wrappings, long after his death.
The body of Thutmose II suffered greatly at the hands of ancient tomb robbers, with his left arm broken off at the shoulder-joint, the forearm separated at the elbow joint, and his right arm chopped off below the elbow. His anterior abdominal wall and much of his chest had been hacked at, possibly by an axe. In addition, his right leg had been severed from his body.
Thutmose II supposedly died in his early 30’s, of an unknown condition. The analysis of his mummy revealed he had been a weak man in life, thin and shrunken, with little muscle mass, and his skin was covered in lesions and scars that could not be disguised by the embalming process. His skin condition could be a signal of an infectious disease that led to his death. His head also had bald patches.
From among his lesser wives or concubines, Thutmose II left a son, who was still very young at his father’s death, named Thutmose III. As indicated by the king’s chief architect, although the young prince was elevated to the throne, it was his stepmother and regent, Hatshepsut, who governed Egypt taking advantage of the boy's age.
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