The Birmingham Mummy
Human Mummy
Biographical Information
Name(s) The Birmingham Mummy
Age 25-34
Sex Male
Height Unknown
Date(s) Unknown
Site Unknown
Current Location
Location Egypt
Catalog #

The identity of this mummy is currently unknown. However, there is information surrounding when he lived, his occupation and the circumstances surrounding his death. The Birmingham Mummy died between the ages of 25-34, and was most likely a warrior during the Egyptian Middle Kingdom (from 1975 BC to 1640 BC). He was most likely hit in the front of his body by an arrow, which hit the soft tissues of the neck in some capacity and stuck in the right infra temporal fossa. It is thought by most that study the mummy that the wound became infected and a muscle spasm induced torticollis (a twisting of muscles of the neck beyond their normal position) which was not fully corrected on mummification.


This mummy was very well preserved due to the temperature within its surroundings, where it was kept and the fact that he was safe from the cold winters that effected mummies in other locations, such as Nordic countries.


It is believed that the penetration of an arrow, there followed by a muscle spasm caused the infection to grow within the wound. He most likely lived for a short period after this, until the infection grew and ultimately killed him. This was difficult to prove due to the mummy staying wrapped during inspection.


Pahor, A. L., & Cole, J. (1995). The Birmingham mummy: the first torticollis in history. The Journal of Laryngology & Otology, 109(04). doi:10.1017/s0022215100129913

Pahor, A. L., & Cole, J. (1995, April). The Birmingham mummy: the first torticollis in history. Retrieved November 21, 2017, from

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