Human Mummy
Biographical Information
Name(s) Irethorrou (Iret-net Hor-irw)
Age 40-50 years old
Sex Male
Status stolist or wardrobe-priest of Min
Culture ancient Egypt
Date(s) c.500 BCE
Site Akhmim, Egypt
Current Location
Location Legion of Honour Fine Arts Museum, San Francisco, United States
Catalog # none

Irethorrou took on a religious position that was known as a stolist or wardrobe-priest. Wardrobe-priests in ancient Egypt were accountable for taking care of the god’s statue. This included purifying or washing, clothing, etc. However, Irethorrou’s role went far beyond this. As other titles indicate that he specialized in funerary rituals, he is described as servant (i.e. prophet) of the important funerary deity Osiris-Sokar. This is a job position that was perviously held by earlier members of his family.


Irethorrou’s body was methodically wrapped in linen, and amulets made of stone or faience were carefully positioned at specific points within the linen on his body. There are 9 amulets placed throughout the linen layers (two at the head, one over the right eye, and four placed on the torso). These deities together would have worked to speed and secure Irethorrou’s resurrection.


Dr. Renée Dreyfus (in 2009) led a collaborative team to scan Irethorrou’s mummy at Stanford University Medical Center. From this scan, image data was assembled and analyzed to create an animated fly-through view of the mummy. This animation piece is augmented the centerpiece of Irethorrou’s mummy and coffin in the special exhibition Very Postmortem: Mummies and Medicine.


The cause of death can presumably be said to be non-traumatic and possibly the result of infectious disease. This is shown from the skin of his back, which displays a large number of bumps not often found in examinations of images from other scanned mummies.

Additional Info

The "Hypocephalus of Irethorrou" was found beneath the head of Irethorrou (resides at the Louvre Museum, Paris, France). This disk, covered with images and texts, is known as "hypocephalus," a Greek word for "that which is below the head," in reference to the object's funerary function. This unusual religious pillow enabled the deceased to identify himself to the sun god by the flash of light it created.

External Links


Dreyfus, R.D. (2012, October 31). Mummy by the Bay: Irethorrou, an Egyptian Priest of the Early Persian Period. Retrieved from

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