| Hatshepsut |
Hatshepsut was the daughter of Thutmose I and Ahmose. Her name means ‘Foremost of Noble Ladies.’ She was the fifth pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt, and the second historically confirmed female pharaoh. Hatshepsut came to the throne of Egypt in 1478 BC. Hatshepsut had been the chief wife of Thutmose II, Thutmose III’s father. Hatshepsut and Thutmose II had a daughter, Neferure. Thutmose II fathered Thutmose III with Iset, a secondary wife. Hatshepsut is generally regarded by Egyptologists as one of the most successful pharaohs.
She led a successful military campaign in Nubia and assumed the male trappings of power – she wore male clothing including the false beard of the pharaohs, and was addressed by male titles.She re-established international trading relationships lost during a foreign occupation and brought great wealth to Egypt. That wealth enabled Hatshepsut to initiate building projects that raised the calibre of Ancient Egyptian architecture to a standard, comparable to classical architecture, including the construction of Hatshepsut's funerary temple at Deir el-Bahri.
She died in middle age, in the twenty-second year of her reign. KV20 in the Valley of the Kings was where Hatshepsut was originally buried, in a stone sarcophagus alongside a second sarcophagus that was originally made for her but later was re-inscribed for her father, Thutmose I. Her mummy is likely either KV60A or KV60B
Unidentified mummies KV60A, KV60B, DB320A, and DB320B, are CT scanned. DB320A was significantly older than Hatshepsut's recorded age, while DB320B was dropped from consideration for its non-royal pose. KV60A was allegedly closest to the Thutmose family skull morphology, but the scan reveal nothing that eliminates KV60B.
This mummy was first discovered by Howard Carter and then later re-investigated. No contemporary mention of the cause of her death has survived. If the recent identification of her mummy is correct, however, the medical evidence would indicate that she suffered from diabetes and died from bone cancer which had spread throughout her body. It was also shown that she had an overbite. Evidence, in the form of a broken tooth, suggests that the mummy found by Howard Carter in KV60 more than a century ago could be Hatshepsut.
After her death her successor, stepson Thutmose III, systematically defaced nearly all images or mentions of her on public buildings in an attempt to eradicate her from history.