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Ötzi, The Iceman
Oetzi dieentdeckung.jpg
Biographical Information
Name(s) Ötzi
Age Approximately 45 years old
Sex Male
Status Unknown
Height 1.65 m (5 ft 5 in)
Culture Unknown
Date(s) Lived around c. 3300 BCE
Site Discovered in the Ötztal Alps
Current Location
Location The Austrian–Italian border
Catalog #

Nicknamed Otzi, this well-preserved natural mummy was of a man who lived around 3,300 BCE. He died between 3239-3105 BCE. The probable cause of Otzi's death was exsanguination (blood loss) due to arrow wound to his shoulder. He is one of the oldest mummies ever discovered. The mummy was found on September 19, 1991 in the Ötztal Alps at the Austrian-Italian Border. He was found to have an arrowhead in his left shoulder so his death is speculated to have been due to violence.


He was naturally preserved after his body was entombed in ice.


It was first believed that Otzi died from ezposure. It was not until 2001 that X-rays and CT scans showed Otzi had an arrowhead lodged in his left shoulder when he died, matching a small tear on his coat. Therefore, it was speculated that Otzi died of blood loss, the wound would probably have been fatal even if modern medical techniques were available at the time. Further research found that the arrow had been removed before death, causing bruises and cuts to the hands, wrists, and chest.


At the time of his death he was 1.65 metres (5 ft 5 in) tall, weighed about 61 kilograms (135 lbs) and was about 45 years old. When his body was found it weighed 13.750 kilograms (30 lbs).

Artist facial reconstruction

Pollen, dust grains, and isotopic composition of his tooth enamel showed he spent his childhood ear the village of Feldthurns. Analysis of his intentional contents showed two meals, one of chamois meat and the other of red deer both with herd bread. He was infested with whipworm, an intentional parasite. During CT scans it showed three or four of his right side ribs were cracked, probably either because of assualt or more likely centuries of ice had crushed his body.

Otzi had a total of 61 tattoos, consisting of 19 groups of black lines.

External Links


Lorenzi, R. (2011, September 19). The Ice Mummy: Little-Known Facts : DNews. Retrieved March 20, 2016, from