Human Mummy
Biographical Information
Name(s) Ötzi, The Iceman, Otzi, Oetzi
Age 45
Sex Male
Height Approximately 1.65 metres
Date(s) c. 3300 BCE
Site East ridge of the Fineilspitze in the Ötztal Alps on the Austrian–Italian border.
Current Location
Location South Tyrol Museum of Archaeology, Bolzano, South Tyrol, Italy.
Catalog #


Otzi the iceman has been theorized to be of the 'warrior class' within his tribe. This identification was made when his copper axe was discovered as well as various other daggers, and a bow/arrows he had in his position at the time. With this information Otzi is said to have had a high level of status within his village or community. Other researchers argue that Otzi was a hunter. It has also been discovered via biological analysis of Otzi's tooth enamel that he likely lived in Eisack valley or Puster Valley south of the Alpine mountain chain.

Ötzi was found on 19 September 1991 by two German tourists, at an elevation of 3,210 metres (10,530 ft).


There is skepticism on the specifics of how Otzi the iceman was mummified. One of the main theory's suggest that when Otzi died, a layer of snow fell upon his body essentially acting as a protective layer against the elements and predators. As time passed, ice slowly developed around the body entirely and prevented further decay of the body.


Upon examination researchers were able to identify the mummy as an adult male with an approximate age of 45 years. The height of Otzi was estimated to be 1.6 metres tall or 5'.3" and weighing in at 50kg or 110lbs. Upon diagnostic imaging it was also discovered that Otzi was without his twelfth pair of ribs.


It has been confirmed that Otzi the iceman was in a fight before his death. This is due to various markings on bones and the final blow on his shoulder that would ultimately lead Otzi to his death. Otzi was shot by an arrow on his left shoulder and hit a major blood vessel. Otzi did not die right away, he was able to walk to where his discovery was made in the gully. However, Otzi would have only survived a few minutes before dying from blood loss.


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